Child Health and the Environment

By Donald T. Wigle | Go to book overview

2
Environmental Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions in human populations as a basis for preventive and other interventions. Unique to environmental epidemiology is its focus on environmental factors to which humans are unwittingly exposed. The scope of environmental epidemiology addressed in this book includes studies of adverse health outcomes in human populations and their relationship to prenatal and childhood exposures to environmental hazards. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the types of environmental epidemiologic studies, their strengths and weaknesses, their role in describing population distributions of exposures and health outcomes, and their use to generate and test hypotheses about environmental threats to child health. The discussion includes important issues underlying the limited ability of epidemiologic studies to identify hazards when population exposures are low and health outcomes are subtle or delayed.


EPIDEMIOLOGY

Strengths

The major strength of epidemiologic studies is their ability to assess relationships between environmental exposures and health outcomes directly

-27-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Child Health and the Environment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xv
  • 1 - Environmental Threats to Child Health- Overview 1
  • 2 - Environmental Epidemiology 27
  • 3 - Risk Assessment 47
  • 4 - Metals—Lead 71
  • 5 - Metals—Mercury, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Manganese 99
  • 6 - Pcbs, Dioxins, and Related Compounds 136
  • 7 - Pesticides 162
  • 9 - Hormonally Active Agents 189
  • 9 - Radiation 229
  • 10 - Indoor Air 270
  • 11 - Outdoor Air 300
  • 12 - Water 334
  • 13 - Conclusion 366
  • Index 383
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 396

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.