The discussion about the application of nursing theories in nursing practice did not start in Germany until after 1982. Since nursing science was not integrated into nursing education, the discussion was essentially directed toward the practice use of theories. The scientific use of nursing theories was not the subject of professional discussion before that time. The central ideas of different nursing theories, their definitions of what nursing is and should be were only presented in textbooks. The rather superficial discussion of nursing theories had to do with the lack of valid translations of the theories. Translations did exist in the form of working papers for only very few theories. These were predominantly used for seminars and training courses for nurses but unfortunately were not integrated systematically into education programs at that time.
The growing discussion about nursing theories in Germany was influenced by the development of nursing in Switzerland. In 1991 the first publication focusing on self-care deficit nursing theory appeared in the literature (Ricka & Schmidli-Bless, 1991). This was just before the debate concerning the development of nursing as an academic profession reached its peak in Germany. This occurred between 1991 and 1995. The result of this debate