Part 3 provides a critical look at the traditional boundaries of psychotherapy. Chapter 9 opens with Dineen’s broad-based, incisive discussion of the overall context into which professionalism and boundary issues in psychotherapy exist. Given that dual relationships are but one facet of boundary extensions, it is important to appreciate the complete picture—with all the subtleties and complexities that Dineen lucidly explains. In chapter 10, Lazarus elucidates how his personal background encouraged a familial, informal model of therapeutic interaction and discouraged a formal and traditionalist approach with many clients. Fay discusses boundary issues in chapter 11—from the perspective of a practicing psychiatrist who shed the shackles of his initial restrictive training. He presents many vignettes that illustrate a wide array of what would be considered not only boundary crossings but also violations according to psychoanalytic precepts—often with telling effects. The need for such flexibility is most compelling with patients who have failed to respond to more traditional interventions.