First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System

By Chad R. Trulson; James W. Marquart | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 5
Cracks in the Color Line

In 1970, Dr. George Beto was nearly at the end of his tenure as director of the Texas prison system. At that time, he oversaw a prison system with roughly 15,000 prisoners, housed in roughly a dozen prison units scattered throughout East Texas. The system’s operating budget was approximately $18 million. Under Beto’s administration, litigation activity by inmates was sporadic and fundamentally a nuisance. For the most part, inmate life on any of the prison units was the same as it had been in the 1960s and even the 1950s. When the work bell chimed, the hoe squads hit the hallways, were counted, ran to the waiting trailers, and went to work in the fields “flat weeding” or picking cotton.


Prelude to Change

Only one month after Beto’s retirement in 1972, roughly two years before the December 1974 final report by the Joint Committee on Prison Reform, the Texas Department of Corrections (TDC) faced a prisoner lawsuit that would have a massive impact on the system’s operation. On October 17, 1972, black TDC inmate Allen L. Lamar filed a Section 1983 lawsuit (federal Civil Action for Deprivation of Civil Rights) in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, alleging that system-wide practices of racial segregation and discrimination deprived inmates of their civil rights.1

As the Joint Committee’s investigation entered its early stages, pretrial events in the Lamar case were gaining momentum and the case was expanding. Only weeks after Lamar filed suit with the court, on November 6, eight Spanish-speaking inmates (including David Ruiz, the plaintiff of Ruiz v. Estelle) moved to intervene as additional plaintiffs.2 Two more black inmates

-89-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Introduction xiv
  • From Segregation to Desegregation in Texas Prisons- A Timeline xvi
  • Part I - The outside 1
  • Chapter 1 - Broken Barriers 3
  • Chapter 2 - An Institutional Fault Line 15
  • Chapter 3 - 18,000 Days 42
  • Part II - The Inside 59
  • Chapter 4 - The Color Line Persists 61
  • Chapter 5 - Cracks in the Color Line 89
  • Chapter 6 - Full Assault on the Color Line 111
  • Chapter 7 - The Color Line Breaks 134
  • Chapter 8 - 7,000 Days Later 163
  • Chapter 9 - Life in the First Available Cell 176
  • Part III - A Colorless Society? 201
  • Chapter 10 - The Most Unlikely Place 203
  • Notes 225
  • Select Bibliography 265
  • Index 269
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 277

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.