The letter from Tom Brandon quoted in the epigraph is in file D40, Tom Brandon Archives, Film Studies Center, Museum of Modern Art, New York (hereafter cited as Tom Brandon Archives).
1. As of 2010, only a relatively small amount of work had been conducted regarding U.S. Left film criticism, and a majority of the studies appeared more than two decades ago. See Myron Osborn Lounsbury, The Origins of American Film Criticism, 1909–1939; William Alexander, Film on the Left: American Documentary Film from 1931 to 1942; Russell Campbell, Cinema Strikes Back: Radical Filmmaking in the United States, 1930–1942; and Anna Everett, Returning the Gaze: A Genealogy of Black Film Criticism, 1909–1949.
2. Rohama Lee, “World Cinema: The Brandon Story,” Film News 28, no. 3 (1971): 18.
3. Ibid., 17–21, 27.
4. Tom Brandon, unpublished MS, file D43, 76a, Tom Brandon Archives.
5. Ibid., 79.
6. Hurwitz is quoted in Tom Brandon to members of the New York Film and Photo League, September 4, 1974, file D40, Tom Brandon Archives.
8. Fredric Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act, 35.
9. Ibid., 29–30, 81.
10. Ibid., 40.
11. Michael Denning, Culture in the Age of Three Worlds, 120.
12. Walter Benjamin, “Eduard Fuchs: Collector and Historian,” 227.
13. Ibid., 233. Raymond Williams develops this notion well in his discussion of the dominant, residual, and emergent (Marxism and Literature, 121–127).
14. Walter Benjamin, “Theses on the Philosophy of History,” 255.
15. Ibid., 262–263.
16. Ibid., 255.
17. Brandon, unpublished MS, file D43, 6.