Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation

By Güneş Murat Tezcür | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 5
The Guardians
and Elections
in Iran and Turkey

This chapter describes the institutional and ideological basis of guardianship and the dynamics of electoral competition in Iran and Turkey. According to the conventional wisdom, the Iranian and Turkish regimes are located on opposite ends of the relationship between the state and religion. While the former embodies the complete fusion of religious and political authority, the latter derives its legitimacy from nonreligious sources and severely restricts public expression of Islam. The faqih (jurist, or expert in Islamic law) who holds the supreme power in Iran is responsible for guiding the religious community during the occultation of the Twelfth Imam and acts as his deputy (Article 5 of the 1979 Constitution). Political rights are conditioned on religious obligation, and the state enforces religious morality in public life in Iran. In Turkey, sovereignty exclusively belongs to the Turkish nation, and religion has no role in state affairs and politics (Preamble of the 1982 Constitution). None of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the constitution shall be exercised in a way that endangers the secular order of the state (Article 14).

Despite their competing ideological stances on the political role of Islam, the Iranian and Turkish regimes share a fundamental institutional feature. Government by guardians, identified by Robert Dahl as a perennial alternative to democracy, characterizes both the Islamist Iranian and the secularist Turkish regimes. The notion of guardianship is based on the assumption that the ruling elite has the right to govern by reason of its unique knowledge, wisdom, and virtue.1 It directly challenges the ascending theory of power that subjects political rule to popular consent and underlies the modern notion of representative democracy. The Iranian and Turkish regimes have elements of guardianship that coexist with institutions of popular sovereignty. Both regimes claim popular legitimacy and hold regular and competitive elections for public offices. However, the authority of these public offices is restricted by

-90-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 306

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.