Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation

By Güneş Murat Tezcür | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 9
Conclusion

This study makes three contributions to the study of Muslim politics. First, it offers the first and only systematic analysis of Muslim reformers in two very important countries, Iran and Turkey. The comparative method adopted in this work clearly demonstrates that Muslim reformism embracing electoral democracy, political pluralism, and human rights can rise and mobilize substantial public support in very unexpected settings. Iran and Turkey greatly differ in terms of modern and recent history, sectarian affiliation, regime type, political economy, and foreign affairs. Yet both countries witnessed the rise of Muslim reformers in similar time periods. Muslim political actors, regardless of their sectarian orientation and political experience, are capable of responding to institutional incentives and constraints. Similar ideological and behavioral changes among Muslim political actors have also taken place in Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, and Western Europe. At the same time, moderation theory does not apply to all Islamist parties participating in elections. Some Islamist parties have strong organizational foundations and operate in countries with weak states. These parties sponsor extensive welfare services, are well entrenched in communities, are financially autonomous, and control militias. Either they infiltrate the state apparatus or the state lacks the capacity to dismantle their grassroots networks and militias. In a sense, they are states within states. Hence, they are not faced with a trade-off between organizational survival and pursuit of revolutionary goals. They retain ideological goals while legally participating in the political system. Examples include Hamas in the Palestinian Authority, Hezbollah in Lebanon, and the Sadr Movement and the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI) in postSaddam Iraq.1 Moderation theory does not predict that these organizations will evolve in a manner similar to the RF and JDP.

Second, Muslim reformers harbor ambivalent attitudes toward societal pluralism. They espouse forms of secularism that are accommodative of public expressions of Islamic identity and display of Islamic symbols. That kind

-210-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 306

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.