Spanish Texas, 1519-1821

By Donald E. Chipman; Harriett Denise Joseph | Go to book overview

FOUR
Río Grande focus and the french
Challenge in Texas, 1680–1689

The 1680s were years of crisis for the northern frontier of New Spain, and they had significant repercussions for Texas. The decade began with a massive Indian revolt in New Mexico that claimed the lives of more than four hundred Spaniards and forced the abandonment of a province held continuously for eighty-two years. The relocation of refugees, combined with the difficulty of reestablishing control in New Mexico, led to permanent settlement in the El Paso del Norte region. In the second half of this decade, the French presence in Texas challenged Spanish claims to the future Lone Star State, which dated from the Alonso Álvarez de Pineda voyage of 1519. The Spanish response resulted in five sea explorations and six overland expeditions (four of them into Texas)—all designed to pluck out the “the French thorn.”1

By 1680 Spanish settlers in New Mexico numbered approximately 2,800. The majority of them lived in the southern district, known as Río Abajo, while a smaller number resided to the north in the vicinity of the capital at Santa Fe. Scattered among the various missions of the province were some 16,000 partially Hispanicized Pueblo Indians ministered to by thirty-two Franciscan friars. Although there was no formal presidio, soldiers were stationed at Santa Fe. At that time, Antonio de Otermín, governor and captain general of New Mexico, directed the affairs of the province.2

In late summer 1680, Pueblo Indians throughout most of the province rose up against the Spanish colonists. The revolt stunned the European community, but to historians advantaged by hindsight, its occurrence comes as no surprise. The causes of the Pueblo Revolt had little direct bearing on Texas history, but they merit at least brief consideration, because the Spanish experience in New Mexico illustrates the shortcomings of their frontier policies, even among sedentary people whose cultural attainments were superior to those of any Texas Indians. Second, Diego de Peñalosa, a former governor of New Mexico, had not only contributed by his actions

-60-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Spanish Texas, 1519-1821
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 368

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.