1. D. W. Meinig, Imperial Texas: An Interpretive Essay in Cultural Geography, 7; Randolph B. Campbell, An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas, 1821— 1865, 2.
2. Terry G. Jordan, John L. Bean Jr., and William M. Holmes, Texas: A Geography, 1–5.
3. Ibid., 12.
4. Herbert E. Bolton, Coronado: Knight of Pueblos and Plains, 243.
5. Ibid., 284–287.
6. A. Ray Stephens and William M. Holmes, Historical Atlas of Texas, 4.
7. Jordan, Bean, and Holmes, Texas, 12.
8. Ibid., 12–14.
9. Texas Almanac 2006–2007, 183. Brewster County (6,192 square miles), the largest county in Texas, is more than three times the size of Delaware and slightly larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Island and Connecticut.
10. Pertinent Information on Presidios of the Interior Provinces (December 11, 1728), AGI, Guadalajara 114; Jordan, Bean, and Holmes, Texas, 37. By Spanish calculation, Los Adaes near present Robeline, Louisiana, was situated 230 leagues (598 miles) from San Antonio and 600 leagues (1,560 miles) from Mexico City.
11. Jordan, Bean, and Holmes, Texas, 28.
12. For remarks about vegetation and animals in diaries of the early travelers throughout South Texas, see Jack M. Inglis, A History of Vegetation on the Río Grande Plain, 16–91 passim.
13. Meinig, Imperial Texas, 24–26, quotation on 24; Robert S. Weddle, The French Thorn: Rival Explorers in the Spanish Sea, 1682–1762, 97.
14. Diary of the Alonso de León Expedition (1690), AGI, México 617.
15. Diary Fragment [1727–1728], AGI, Indiferente General 108, Tomo 3. Spaniards called the birds texolotes, derived from tecolote, the Nahuatl word for owl.
16. Letter from Teodoro de Croix to the Viceroy (February 15, 1778), AGI, Guadalajara 267; Letter from Teodoro de Croix to José de Gálvez (January 23, 1779), AGI,