1. See, for example, Edmund S. Morgan, Benjamin Franklin (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 29–30. Various biographies of Franklin are discussed in [Recommended Reading.]
2. His autobiography describes his life between his birth in 1706 and his 1757 departure for England on behalf of the Pennsylvania Assembly. See Leonard W. Labaree et al., eds., The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003). The best secondary accounts of Franklin's early life are the first volume of J. A. Leo Lemay, The Life of Benjamin Franklin, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006–9) and Arthur Bernon Tourtellot, Benjamin Franklin: The Shaping of Genius, the Boston Years (Garden City ny: Doubleday, 1977).
3. For his hatred of disputes and his claims to having no enemies as a man, see his unsent April 3, 1778, letter to Arthur Lee in Leonard W. Labaree et al., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 39 vols. to date (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959-), 26:223, and his January 6, 1784, letter to John Jay in Albert Henry Smyth, ed., The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, 10 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1905–7), 9:151.
4. For example, Franklin to Jonathan Shipley, Feb. 24, 1786, in Leo Lemay, ed., Benjamin Franklin: Writings (New York: Library of America, 1986), 1161–63. With it Franklin may have enclosed his essay [The Internal State of America]: Verner W. Crane, [Franklin's 'The Internal State of America' (1786),] William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 15 (1958): 214–27. See also Smyth, Writings of Franklin, 9:472–73, 492–94; 10:52.