Education beyond the Mesas: Hopi Students at Sherman Institute, 1902-1929

By Matthew Sakiestewa Gilbert | Go to book overview

3. The Orayvi Split and
Hopi Schooling

On September 8, 1906, shortly after the sun rose over the Hopi mesas, the two Hopi factions gathered outside Orayvi and engaged in a tug-of-war that forever changed the future of the Hopi people.1 While more than five hundred Hopi men gathered outside the village,2 Hopi leaders poured a line of cornmeal on the ground and the two groups positioned themselves on each side of the marker.3 Leigh J. Kuwanwisiwma, whose grandfathers participated in the Hopi dispute, recalled that Tawaquaptewa (leader of the accommodators) and Youkeoma (leader of the resisters) stood “chest to chest” near the center of the line while their followers pushed and pulled them from behind.4 Attempting to keep their leader from crossing over the line, the Hopi factions understood that whichever group lost the confrontation would be forced to leave the village. Many Hopis received injuries when others pulled, pushed, grabbed, or scratched them in the commotion. Furthermore, children who observed the battle from a distance saw their fathers, uncles, and grandfathers shoving each other from opposite sides. Kuwanwisiwma noted that the battle “went on for hours” until the accommodating Hopis pulled Youkeoma over the line and demanded that every resisting Hopi family leave the village. Hopis whose family members lived at Orayvi during this time

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Education beyond the Mesas: Hopi Students at Sherman Institute, 1902-1929
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction xvii
  • 1 - Hopi Resistance 1
  • 2 - Policies and Assimilation 29
  • 3 - The Orayvi Split and Hopi Schooling 51
  • 4 - Elder in Residence 71
  • 5 - Taking Hopi Knowledge to School 95
  • 6 - Learning to Preach 115
  • 7 - Returning to Hopi 137
  • Conclusion 163
  • Appendix - A Retelling of Jus-Wa-Kep-la 171
  • Notes 175
  • Bibliography 207
  • Index 219
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