Empires, Nations, and Families: A History of the North American West, 1800-1860

By Anne F. Hyde | Go to book overview

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

1. Charles A. Beard, “Written History as an Act of Faith,” American Historical Review 39 (January 1934): 222, 229.


INTRODUCTION

1. Foley and Rice, First Chouteaus, 45–46, 91–92; Hoig, Chouteaus, 44–45; Dickason, “From ‘One Nation,’” 19.

2. Faragher, Daniel Boone, and Merrill, Into the American Woods, have described the subsistence hunting culture of this earlier frontier.

3. There is no perfect word to describe the people to whom I refer here— métis, Métis, Creole, half-breed, mixed race, and mestizo all offer different problems of identity and etiquette. Numerous terms were used at the time that denoted the kinds of mixtures, their national origins, and the amount of mixing that made up each individual phenotype. Because Anglo-Americans did not develop their full-blown obsession with racial description and categorization until the mid- and late nineteenth century, most people did not use consistent terminology, and nor do I. Race, a term anthropologists warn us against now, was commonly used in the nineteenth century to denote differences in human phenotypes, so I think it is accurate to use the term here. The same challenge lies in describing Europeans, Euro-Americans, Anglo-Americans, White Americans, or Anglos, which are used to describe different groups or to mean the same thing. I strive, and fail, for clarity.

4. Sleeper-Smith, Indian Women and French Men, and James Brooks, Captives and Cousins, look at this set of relationships and draw quite different conclusions about how it all worked.

5. Hendrickson, Union, Nation, or Empire, 20–22.

6. R. L. F. Davis, “Community and Conflict,” 338; “Introduction” to Chouteau Collection, Missouri Historical Society (hereafter MHS); Aron, American Confluence, 34–44; Banner, Legal Systems in Conflict, 51–53, 72–81.

7. DuVal, Native Ground, 183–84; Din and Nasatir, Imperial Osages, 360–61.

8. Thorne, Many Hands, 70–76; General Miro to Antonio Rengel, “Letter from New Orleans, Dec. 12, 1785,” in Nasatir, Before Lewis and Clark, 120.

9. Thomas Forsyth, quoted in J. B. White, “Missouri Merchant,” 99–102, 107; Scharf, History of St. Louis, 1: 288–91.

10. Inside the Corps, “July 04, 1804 Journal of Charles Floyd,” PBS, http://www .pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/ (accessed July 14, 2010); Ambrose, Undaunted Courage, 149.

-515-

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