BM: Baseball Magazine
NYT: New York Times
TSN: The Sporting News
1. There were some similarities between the 1930s and baseball’s “Golden Age” of the postwar era. Baseball adapted to new technologies: radio and electric lights during the 1930s and television during the postwar period. Some franchises proved spectacularly inept, such as the Philadelphia Phillies in the 1930s and Pittsburgh Pirates in the 1950s. There were maverick owners: Larry MacPhail in the 1930s and Bill Veeck in the postwar era. Some teams reported persistent losses both during the Great Depression and in the postwar era. These losses were large enough that some clubs tried to relocate, especially the St. Louis teams, who made the attempt before and after World War II.
2. Burk, Never Just a Game and Much More Than a Game.
3. National League and American Association, Annual Meeting, 92.
4. National League and American Association, Annual Meeting, 104.
5. Fort, Sports Economics, 1st ed., 130.
6. “Baseball Owners Assailed as Trust,” NYT, April 3, 1937.
7. “Baseball Inquiry Refused,” NYT, April 15, 1937; “Cummings Orders Study on Baseball,” NYT, April 8, 1937; “Decision by Holmes Nips Baseball Case: Monopoly Charge,” NYT, April 10, 1937.
8. Researchers of demand for baseball games try to use a single ticket price, but the price-setting baseball owners offered a range of ticket prices. During the 1930s, most teams had three or four categories of seats, ranging from cheap bleacher seats to expensive box seats. The multiplicity of prices may have accounted for the counterintuitive findings of some researchers listed above, as they struggled to define the price variable.
Fort, “Inelastic Sports Pricing,” reviews many of the key studies.
9. Craig, “Organized Baseball,” vii.
10. Haupert and Winter, “Pay Ball.”