1. David Donald, Lincoln Reconsidered (New York: Vintage, 1956), 3–18.
2. On the Lincoln image and the various uses of Lincoln over time, see especially Merrill D. Peterson, Lincoln in American Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Barry Schwartz, Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000); Barry Schwartz, Abraham Lincoln in the Post-Heroic Era: History and Memory in Late Twentieth-Century America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008); and David W. Blight, “The Theft of Lincoln in Scholarship, Politics, and Public Memory,” in Eric Foner, ed., Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World (New York: Norton, 2008), 269–82. Also revealing about the enduring appeal, mystery, and uses of Lincoln is Harold Holzer, ed., The Lincoln Anthology: Great Writers on His Life and Legacy from 1860 to Now (New York: Library of America, 2009). For an eloquent assessment of Lincoln’s relevance today, see James M. McPherson, “Lincoln’s Legacy for Our Time,” in Frank J. Williams and William D. Pederson, eds., Lincoln Lessons: Reflections on America’s Greatest Leader (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2009), 75–90. For a wide sampling of historians’ recent takes on Lincoln’s variable and enduring significance, see Brian Lamb and Susan Swain, eds., Abraham Lincoln: Great American Historians on Our Sixteenth President (New York: Public Affairs, 2008).
3. Donald, Lincoln Reconsidered, 18.
4. For the biographical assessments of Lincoln, see the “Bibliographical Essay” in this book. My own reading of Lincoln’s life and meaning, particularly as it relates to his leadership, has been especially influenced by Phillip Shaw Paludan, The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994); William E. Gienapp, Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); Mark E. Neely Jr., The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993); Richard Carwardine, Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power (New York: Knopf, 2006); William Lee Miller, President Lincoln: The Duty of a Statesman (New York: Knopf, 2008); Allen C. Guelzo, Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999); and with some reservations, David Herbert Donald, Lincoln (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995); and James M. McPherson, Tried by Fire: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief (New York: Penguin, 2008). For excellent state-of-the-field assessments, with important suggestions for new directions in scholarship, see the essays by Matthew Pinsker, Edward L. Ayers, Catherine Clinton, Michael F. Holt, Mark E. Neely Jr., and Douglas L. Wilson in “Lincoln Studies at the Bicentennial: A Round Table,” Journal of American History 96 (2009): 417–61. Regarding the term “slave power,” Lincoln and other Republicans meant the power of slaveholders able