Creating a New Racial Order: How Immigration, Multiracialism, Genomics, and the Young Can Remake Race in America

By Jennifer Hochschild; Vesla Weaver et al. | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. We have been influenced in our understanding of changing racial orders by, among many others, Berlin 1998; Klinkner and Smith 2002; Morgan 1975; Hollinger 2006; Woodward 1971; Marx 1998; Wilson 1980; Fredrickson 2002; Montejano 1987; King and Smith 2005, 2008; and Kim 2000.


Chapter 1. Destabilizing the American Racial Order

The sources for the epigraphs are as follows: Lucas 2000, 467; Hitt 2005, 47; “Census, Welfare, California, New York City” 2004.

1. Coon 1939. Coon anticipates the supposedly recent view that race is socially constructed. The first paragraph of the introduction to his book states, “If there is one consistent theme in this book, it is that physical anthropology cannot be divorced from cultural and historical associations and that there is no such thing as ‘pure’ biology, at least in reference to human beings” (vii).

2. Darwin 2010 [1871], 170.

3. Criminal race: Hughes 1988, 167, quoting Edinburgh Review, ethnicity: Sollors 1989 and Hattam 2004; Yale: Smith 2009.

4. “Self-definition” means that an individual chooses his or her own racial label. By “identity,” we mean that the person sees his or her racial self-definition to be an important constitutive part of who he or she really is, with political, emotional, behavioral, or cultural implications. By “identification,” we mean that an external actor or agency (e.g., employer, census bureau, another person) is giving a racial or ethnic label to a person; that label may or may not correspond with the person’s self-definition. Rockquemore, Brunsma, and Delgado (2009) provide a similar, though not identical, set of definitions and their implications.

5. Kim 1999 elegantly lays out this two-dimensional model.

6. Mexican middle class: Vallejo 2009, 1; Black segregation: “Black Segregation in US Drops to Lowest in Century,” 2010, using data from Frey 2010a; live in suburbs: Frey 2010a, 51.

7. California teens: New American Media 2007a; California voters: Field Poll 2010; Minnesota: Carew 2010; Gallup Poll: Witters 2010.

8. Deputizing local police: Government Accountability Office 2009; Democracy Now 2009; “not even past”: Sugrue 2010.

9. The first prominent use of this idea that we have found was a story on National Public Radio in early 2008:

Welcome to the latest buzz word in the political lexicon, post–racial. It is what
Senator Barack Obama signals in his victory speech in South Carolina…

The post–racial era, as embodied by Obama, is the era where civil rights

-183-

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Creating a New Racial Order: How Immigration, Multiracialism, Genomics, and the Young Can Remake Race in America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures and Tables xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Part I - The Argument 1
  • 1 - Destabilizing the American Racial Order 3
  • Part II - Creating a New Order 19
  • 2 - Immigration 21
  • 3 - Multiracialism 56
  • 4 - Genomics 83
  • 5 - Cohort Change 113
  • 6 - Blockages to Racial Transformation 139
  • Part III - Possibilities 165
  • 7 - The Future of the American Racial Order 167
  • Notes 183
  • References 213
  • Index 255
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