The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations

By Michael L. Ross | Go to book overview

CHAPTER FIVE
Oil-Based Violence

The first and most imperative necessity in war is money, for
money means everything else—men, guns, ammunition.

—Ida Tarbell, The Tariff in Our Times

CIVIL WAR is the greatest catastrophe that can beset a country. Between 1945 and 1999, over sixteen million people died in civil wars.1 Economist Paul Collier describes civil war as “development in reverse.”2

Since the early 1990s, oil-producing countries have been about 50 percent more likely than other countries to have civil wars. Among low- and middle-income countries, oil producers are more than twice as likely to have civil wars. Most oil-related conflicts are small, although a handful—such as the recent wars in Iraq, Angola, and Sudan—have been much bloodier. As oil is extracted from ever-poorer countries, the danger of petroleum-fueled civil wars will almost certainly rise.

It is critical to keep oil’s role in perspective. Civil wars are thankfully rare, even among oil producers. When oil-producing states fall prey to civil war, oil is never the only factor; it is sometimes not even the most important factor. Nevertheless, civil war is the fastest and most calamitous way for a country to transform its oil wealth from a blessing into a curse.


CIVIL WAR: BACKGROUND

Since the late 1990s, there has been a flood of new research on the causes and consequences of civil war. Most scholars now agree on some key facts.3

1 Fearon and Laitin 2003.

2 Collier 2007, 27.

3 For reviews of earlier research on natural resources and civil war, see Ross 2004b, 2006a. For more comprehensive reviews of the study of civil war, see Walter 2002; Kalyvas 2007; Blattman and Miguel 2008. I use the terms “civil war,” “violent conflict,” and “armed conflict” interchangeably. They refer to both minor conflicts (defined as those that cause from twenty-five to a thousand battle-related deaths in a given calendar year) and major conflicts (defined as conflicts that cause at least a thousand battle-related deaths in a single year). To qualify as a civil war, one of the contesting parties must be the

-145-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Tables xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Country Abbreviations xix
  • Chapter One - The Paradoxical Wealth of Nations 1
  • Chapter Two - The Trouble with Oil Revenues 27
  • Chapter Three - More Petroleum, Less Democracy 63
  • Chapter Four - Petroleum Perpetuates Patriarchy 111
  • Chapter Five - Oil-Based Violence 145
  • Chapter Six - Oil, Economic Growth, and Political Institutions 189
  • Chapter Seven - Good News and Bad News about Oil 223
  • References 255
  • Index 281
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 289

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.