Many individuals and institutions assisted me in the long process of researching and writing this book. For fellowships, leaves from teaching, and travel grants I thank the American Council of Learned Societies, the Harry S. Truman Library Institute, and, at the University of Houston, the Department of History, Women’s Studies Program and College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences. Among the dozens of archivists without whom I would not have gotten far, I am especially grateful to Fred Romanski, Herb Rawlings-Milton, Ed Schamel, Rodney Ross, and Jessie Kratz at the National Archives; Dennis Bilger, Randy Sowell, David Clark, and Liz Safly at the Harry S. Truman Library; John White at the College of Charleston Library; David Kessler at the Bancroft Library, University of California; David Klaassen at the Social Welfare History Archive, University of Minnesota; and Harry Miller at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The Arnold & Porter law firm kindly permitted me to examine loyalty hearing transcripts and other nonprivileged files from the firm’s archives. Lisa Hazirjian, Katarina Keane, and Mary Klatt provided excellent research services in remote archives. Scholars who sent me helpful documents include Svetlana Chervonnaya, Ruth Fairbanks, Paul Rosier, David Shreve, and Nancy Beck Young. John Earl Haynes graciously checked some names for me in his database on the Communist Party USA.
Relatives and acquaintances of former loyalty defendants provided documents, photographs, and insights. Arthur Goldschmidt Jr. and Ann Goldschmidt Richardson shared many details, in addition to photos and the electronic version of their father’s draft memoirs. Gene Cohen Tweraser and Karen Cohen Holmes gave me many leads on their parents and also put me in touch with the late Charlotte Tuttle Lloyd Walkup, who kindly spoke with me about her experiences as a government lawyer and with the federal loyalty program. Nancy Kramer Bickel sent me photos that she gathered in the process of making a fine documentary about her aunt: A Twentieth Century Woman: Lucy Kramer Cohen (2011). Louisa Lloyd Hurley and Bruce Cohen also shared photographs. For perspectives on Leon and Mary Dublin Keyserling, I am deeply indebted to her brother the late Thomas D. Dublin, her nephew Thomas Dublin, Kathryn Kish Sklar, Sally Dublin Slenczka, and Harriet