Life and Work in Modern Europe (Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries)

By G. Weulersse; Eileen Power et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER III
ENGLAND

THE development of England during the three centuries we are studying can be summarised thus: After the Wars of the Roses there followed, in the sixteenth century, a period of peace and internal development under the despotism of the Tudors. The country became Protestant, and in the reign of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth entered on a period of rapid and splendid growth. In the seventeenth century, fighting at the same moment absolute monarchy and the renewed offensive of Catholicism, England became the revolutionary centre of Europe. Charles I was beheaded ( 1649), a Republic was proclaimed, and under Cromwell's dictatorship new advances were made. After a short-lived Restoration (1660) a second revolution took place, which gave the crown, in 1688, to a Protestant constitutional monarch. Throughout the eighteenth century the United Kingdom of Great Britain, as she had become after the union with Scotland, took the lead in economic progress and became the queen of the seas and the birthplace of modern industry, while politically she was the home of liberal ideas and the laboratory in which the Parliamentary system was worked out.


I.--TRADE

§ 1. Foreign Trade.

Extension of commercial intercourse; foundation of the British colonial
empire--Change in the nature of imports and exports; modifica-
tions in commercial legislation--Development of the mercantile
marine; Navigation Act of 1651; Trading companies--The chief
ports: London, Bristol, Liverpool, Glasgow.

Accustomed as we are to thinking of England as the leading world power, we find it hard to realise that until quite recent times her commercial importance, even relatively speaking, was inconsiderable, and that the expansion

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Life and Work in Modern Europe (Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries)
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Illustrations xii
  • Foreword xiii
  • Introduction - THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL REVOLUTION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN ERA (FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH CENTURIES) 1
  • Chapter I - SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 18
  • Chapter II - THE NETHERLANDS 42
  • Chapter III - ENGLAND 56
  • Bibliography 119
  • Chapter IV - FRANCE 120
  • Bibliography 247
  • Chapter V - ITALY 248
  • Chapter VI - SWITZERLAND 280
  • Chapter VII - GERMANY AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 288
  • Chapter VIII - THE SCANDINAVIAN STATES 309
  • Chapter IX - POLAND--RUSSIA 330
  • Conclusion 343
  • Index 385
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