1. He was president from 1990 to 1995.
2. Richard Hofstadter, “Columbia University Commencement Address,” 1968, in American Higher Education Transformed, 1940–2005, ed. Wilson Smith and Thomas Bender (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 384.
INTRODUCTION: THE POLITICS OF AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION
IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
1. On the rise of research, see Laurence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965); Roger L. Geiger, To Advance Knowledge: The Growth of American Research Universities, 1900–1940 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Roger L. Geiger, Research and Relevant Knowledge: American Research Universities since World War II (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Stuart W. Leslie, The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Bruce Hevly and Peter Galison, ed., Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992); Rebecca S. Lowen, Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Hugh Davis Graham and Nancy Diamond, The Rise of American Research Universities: Elites and Challengers in the Postwar Era (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997); Margaret Pugh O’Mara, Cities of Knowledge: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon Valley (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005); and Jonathan R. Cole, The Great American University: Its Rise to Preeminence, Its Indispensible National Role, Why It Must Be Protected (New York: Perseus, 2009). On the professions, see Mary O. Furner, Advocacy & Objectivity: A Crisis in the Professionalization of American Social Science, 1865– 1905 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1975); Magali Sarfatti Larson, The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977); Thomas L. Haskell, The Emergence of Professional Social Science: The American Social Science Association and the Crisis of Authority (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977); and Dorothy Ross, The Origins of American Social Science (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991). On the “proministrative state,” see Brian Balogh, “Reorganizing the Organizational Synthesis: Federal-Professional Relations in Modern America,” Studies in American Political Development 5 (1991): 119–72; and Brian Balogh, Chain Reaction: Expert Debate and Public Participation in American Commercial Nuclear Power, 1945–1975 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
2. For two exceptions, see Mark R. Nemec, Ivory Towers and Nationalist Minds: Universities, Leadership, and the Development of the American State (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006), which focuses on the period between the Civil War and World