The Princeton Guide to Ecology

By Simon A. Levin | Go to book overview

IV.8
Seascape Patterns and Dynamics
of Coral Reefs
Terry P. Hughes
OUTLINE
1. Human use and abuse of coral reefs at multiple scales
2. Biogeography, hot spots, and conservation priorities
3. Population dynamics and dispersal
4. Habitat fragmentation in the sea
5. No-take areas, dispersal, and seascape dynamics

Coral reef ecosystems exhibit complex dynamics driven by multiple, interacting processes that operate across a range of scales, from local to global and from days to millions of years. Many reefs have been degraded by human action in recent decades, reducing their capacity to absorb recurrent natural and unnatural disturbances. Rebuilding and sustaining the resilience of coral reefs will depend on interventions that are based on an improved understanding of multiscale processes. The current emphasis on conservation of biodiversity hot spots and on establishing networks of no-take areas does not adequately recognize the functional role of key species groups and the critical seascape connections between protected and unprotected reefs.


GLOSSARY

biodiversity hot spots. Regions with exceptionally high species richness, often selected as priority targets for the protection of marine ecosystems.

endemics. Species with small geographic ranges.

functional group. A group of species that share a common ecological function, regardless of their taxonomic affinities. An example is the herbivores found on coral reefs, a diverse assemblage that includes many species of fish, sea urchins, and threatened species such as green turtles and dugongs.

pandemics. Species with very large geographic ranges.

planula. The free-swimming larva of corals. Planulae are released directly by brooded corals following internal fertilization. Spawning corals release both eggs and sperm, and fertilization is external.

spatial refuge. A location where a species or local population is less likely to be affected by its predators, competitors, or pathogens or other processes impacting on its survival, growth, and reproduction.


1. HUMAN USE AND ABUSE OF CORAL REEFS
AT MULTIPLE SCALES

Coral reefs are iconic high-diversity ecosystems that are important for coastal human societies, primarily in developing countries. They support the livelihoods of well over 250 million people, primarily through subsistence fisheries and international tourism. Despite their intrinsic aesthetic, cultural, and social value, many coral reefs worldwide have been degraded, especially in the past 20–30 years, reducing their capacity to regenerate from natural and human disturbances. The primary causes of these declines are coastal runoff resulting from land clearing and increased urbanization, overfishing, and climate change. Through time, the scale of human impacts has grown, with even the most remote reefs being increasingly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification. Coral reefs are structured by spatial processes that range in scale from global to local, and their capacity to regenerate following disturbance depends on sources of resilience that operate at multiple scales. However, the scales of management of marine ecosystems are usually mismatched to the scales of important processes and to a growing array of human impacts. Interventions are often fragmented and too small in scale to be effective. An emerging approach to management highlights the importance of key multiscale processes undertaken by critical functional groups of species (including the role

-482-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Princeton Guide to Ecology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 810

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.