The Minangkabau Response to Dutch Colonial Rule Nineteenth Century

By Elizabeth E. Graves | Go to book overview

INTRODUCTION

At independence, Indonesia woefully lacked educated citizens possessing the professional and technical skills critical for the success of the new nation. Many of the relatively small number that did exist in 1945 came from the Minangkabau ethnic group of West Sumatra. Minangkabau representation among the political, intellectual, and professional elite of the new Republic far exceeded their 3 percent of the total Indonesian population.

The roots of the Minangkabau achievement lay in their reaction to the advent of Dutch colonial rule in the mid-nineteenth century. After gaining control of all of West Sumatra in 1837, the Dutch needed a body of local people with rudimentary mechanical skills—reading, writing, and elementary ciphering—to staff their geometrically expanding colonial bureaucratic structure. Nevertheless, the colonial government had no consistent policy for encouraging education in the region, although Dutch officials did occasionally take the initiative in sponsoring individual schools there. This was partly because the Dutch regime’s periodic fears of Muslim activity directed against Christian rulers led it to distrust the intensely Islamic Minangkabau. The few schools the government did provide were designed to create an educated class of enlightened hereditary rulers similar to that on Java. When, however, the chiefs themselves showed little interest in education, preferring instead to hire educated clerks, the non-chiefly families, quick to see the unique advantages offered by education, rapidly filled the vacuum. Thus, the schools that sprang up in the nineteenth century in response to Dutch needs owed less to official Dutch support than to local interest. This was particularly the case in areas that were relatively poor agriculturally, where most men had traditionally been forced to pursue occupations as

-11-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Minangkabau Response to Dutch Colonial Rule Nineteenth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 235

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.