1. For important discussions of research methods, including the comparative approach, see Charles Ragin, The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987); David Collier, “The Comparative Method: Two Decades of Change,” in Rustow and Erickson, eds., Comparative Political Dynamics (New York: Harper Collins, 1990), 7–31; and John Gerring, “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98:2 (May 2004), 341–354.
2. This approach is epitomized by Roderick MacFarquhar, author of the trilogy, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, 1983, and 1997). Also see Frederick C. Tiewes, Politics and Purges in China, second edition (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993); Joseph Fewsmith, Dilemmas of Reform in China: Political Conflict and Economic Debate (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994); and Andrew J. Nathan, Chinese Democracy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985).
3. James D. Seymour, China’s Satellite Parties (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1987); Dali L. Yang, Remaking the Chinese Leviathan: Market Transition and the Politics of Governance in China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
4. Harry Harding, Organizing China: The Problem of Bureaucracy, 1949–1976 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1981); Kenneth Lieberthal and Michel Oksenberg, Policymaking in China: Leaders, Structures, and Processes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988); David Bachman, Bureaucracy, Economy, and Leadership in China: The Institutional Origins of the Great Leap Forward (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991); Richard Baum, Burying Mao: Chinese Politics in the Age of Deng Xiaoping (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994); Cheng Li, “University Networks and the Rise of Qinghua Graduates in China’s Leadership,” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 32 (July 1994), 1–30; and Murray Scot Tanner, The Politics of Lawmaking in China: Institutions, Processes, and Democratic Prospects (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1998).