1. Representative Nick Smith of Michigan, “America’s Enemies Will Be Brought to Justice,” Congressional Record 147, 117 (ii September 2001): 5497. An extremely suggestive analysis of the “Barbary analogy” in post-9/11 America and its relevance to contemporary France is Paul A. Silverstein, “The New Barbarians: Piracy and Terrorism on the North African Frontier,” New Centennial Review 5, I (2005): 179–212.
2. The initial responses include “Cries of ‘War’ Stumble over the Law,” Los Angeles Times, 13 September 2001; interview with military expert James Dunnigan, Today in New York, WNBC-TV, 13 September 2001; interview with retired army strategist Ralph Peters, WTOP-AM, 18 September 2001.
3. Samuel Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations,” Foreign Affairs 72, 3 (1993): 22–49 See also, among others, Richard Leiby, “Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates,” Washington Post, 15 October 2001, Coi; Chris Mooney, “The Barbary Analogy,” American Prospect Online, 16 October 2001, http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=the_barbary_analogy; Berry Craig, “Bin Ladin, His Followers Remind Historian of Barbary Pirates,” Associated Press, 5 December 2001; Rand H. Fishbein, “Echoes from the Barbary Coast,” National Interest (Winter 2001–2002): 47–51.
4. Paul Johnson, “2ist-Century Piracy: The Answer to Terrorism? Colonialism,” WSJ.com Opinion Journal, http://online.wsj.com/public/page/news -opinion-commentary.html, 6 October 2001. With the American military project in the Middle East well under way two years later, the Pentagon considered another French model for the “war on terrorism” when it screened Gillo Pontecorvo’s 1967 film about the moral ambiguities of colonial rule and resistance, The Battle of Algiers.
5. Anthropologist Michael Herzfield, searing critic of the Mediterranean unity thesis, wondered if France gets excluded from ethnographies of the region because it “belongs to a different category of countries—imperial, northern, universalist, and rationalist” and is “a country that—unlike Portugal, Spain, Greece and sometimes Italy—does not generate ‘ethnic food’ in North America but is instead the authoritative source of haute cuisine.” “Practical Mediterraneanism: Excuses