RISE OF SEGREGATION
AS ITS DIVERSE ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS developed over the twentieth century, special education offered assistance not only to children with a range of impairments and disadvantages, but, increasingly, also to those with a variety of newly defined student disabilities, or “special educational needs.” Especially over the past several decades, international calls for inclusive education and the national and local movements needed to advocate for and implement such restructured schooling have led to increases in the proportion of students schooled in inclusive classrooms. Yet paradoxically the proportion of all students who learn in segregated settings has also increased. Around the world, special education has diffused, like other types of education, from primary and secondary to tertiary and lifelong learning.
On the one hand, raised awareness, disciplinary diagnostics, and professional knowledge increased the proportion of children and youth with