CORRUPTION/VIOLENCE AND INDIVIDUAL/
THIS CHAPTER PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW of the central concepts guiding this study’s conditional analysis of transnational organized crime. The focus here is on the disruptive tactics of corruption versus violence and the disruptive security impacts on individual/human security versus national/state security. Incorporated in this discussion are an explanation of their global significance, the means of gauging their severity, their different orientations, and their particular relationship to transnational organized crime.
Transnational criminal organizations decidedly do not select their tactics randomly or haphazardly: “One of the answers to the question of how these vast international extra-state networks operate as coherently as they do is that people in these systems generally ‘trust’ that the transaction will occur as predicted.”1 Criminal groups “approach logistics, personnel, and accounting professionally,” hiring experts and acquiring vital information and skills when needed and rationally undertaking cost-benefit analyses to maximize profit just like sound multinational corporations do.2 These careful calculations of criminal minds, when combined with vast financial resources, facilitate the successful use of both corruption and violence on a significant scale 3
under differing circumstances. Figure 3.1 highlights differences in objectives, underlying motives, targets, and desired reactions in transnational organized crime’s use of corruption versus violence tactics.
Transnational criminal organizations oft en find that corruption and violence go hand in hand in ways that are mutually reinforcing, and so these