1. Raine and Cilluffo, Global Organized Crime, p. ix.
2. Even a recent major publication that promisingly claims “to understand the havoc wrought by the corruption and violence of the world’s economic gangsters” falls into this trap by omitting conditional analysis of these two tactics. See Fisman and Miguel, Economic Gangsters, p. 7.
3. Godson and Williams, “Strengthening Cooperation against Transsovereign Crime: A New Security Imperative,” in Cusimano, Beyond Sovereignty, p. 114.
4. Ibid., p. 117.
5. Passas, “Cross-Border Crime and the Interface between Legal and Illegal Actors,” in van Duyne, von Lampe, and Passas, Upperworld and Underworld in CrossBorder Crime, p. 11.
6. Kelly, “Criminal Underworlds: Looking Down on Society from Below,” in Kelly, Organized Crime, p. 11.
7. von Lampe, “Organized Crime Research in Perspective,” in van Duyne, von Lampe, and Passas, Upperworld and Underworld in Cross-Border Crime, p. 191.
8. Woodiwiss, “Transnational Organized Crime: The Strange Career of an American Concept,” in Beare, Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering, and Corruption, p. 3.
9. See, as just one prominent example of the myriad discussions of definitional issues, Mueller, “Transnational Crime,” pp. 13–21; and Reuter and Petrie, Transnational Organized Crime, pp. 7–8.
10. Reuter and Petrie, Transnational Organized Crime, p. 8.