After Between Facts and Norms:
Religion in the Public Square,
Multicultumlism, and the
In the years since Between Facts and Norms, Habermas has extended his project in three directions. First, prompted in part by his 1995 debate with John Rawls, he has joined the growing discussion about religion’s place in public political discourse. Second, probably motivated both by the Rawls debate and by immigration-related developments, Habermas has sought to come to terms with multiculturalism. Third, and in contrast to the implicitly nation-state-based model of Between Facts and Norms, Habermas has considered the possibilities of democracy in what he now calls “the postnational constellation,” with particular attention to the integration project of the European Union. In this line of his work, Habermas has suggested a partial reformulation of the “circulation of power” model that occupied my attention in the last chapter. Moreover, his discussion of the postnational constellation extends to a reformulation of Kant’s program of “perpetual peace”—a reformulation that Habermas calls, alternatively, the “constitutionalization of international law” and the idea of “world society without a world government.”
This chapter considers, in turn, each of these extensions of Habermas’s project.