In writing this book, I learned from many people. Sheldon Garon’s work on Japanese history remains to me a model of clarity and careful scholarship. David Howell is a terrific teacher and continues to inspire me with the range of his contributions and his keen sense of humor. I thank Henry Smith, who insisted on attention to detail but also encouraged creative use of visual sources, and Charles Armstrong, who helped broaden my scope to encompass East Asia. Greg Pflugfelder’s multilingualism, imaginative thinking, and encyclopedic mastery of Japanese history are awe-inspiring. He listened to my ideas and then improved on them. My greatest scholarly debt is to Carol Gluck, who not only has a nuanced knowledge of Japanese history and historians but is a wordsmith without equal. She lives up to her own legend.
Other mentors, colleagues, and friends in the United States helped along the way. Among those who introduced me to new ways of thinking and pushed me to grow as a historian are Matt Augustine, Kim Brandt, Rob Fish, Darryl Flaherty, Christine Kim, Joy Kim, Dorothy Ko, Barak Kushner, Yasuhiro Makimura, Suzanne O’Brien, Scott O’Bryan, Maartje Oldenberg, Lee Pennington, Janet Poole, Kerry Ross, Miwako Tezuka, Lori Watt, Leila Wice, and Jon Zwicker. Special thanks go to those brave readers who read very rough drafts of the manuscript. Laura Neitzel helped me understand Japan’s 1950s, while Atina Grossman encouraged me to make more of German comparisons. Andrew Gordon, William Johnston, and one anonymous reader reviewed the book manuscript, and their questions and suggestions made it much stronger. I also want to thank reviewers for the Journal of Asian Studies, including Jordan Sand, who helped sharpen my logic at a crucial early stage.
In Japan, I owe a great debt to the many people who mentored me, eased my way into archives, shared their memories, or simply let me stay in their homes—sometimes for very long periods of time. Ueno Chizuko, who sponsored my research at the University of Tokyo, is a force of nature. Her