1. Cited in The Economist (June 13, 2009): 21. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the FY 2008 U.S. defense budget reached $661 billion and is projected to reach $710 billion in 2010. In 2008, the U.S. share, at 4.3 percent of GDP, was 43 percent of the world total. “Media Background—Military Expenditure SIPRI Yearbook 2010,” SIPRI, Stockholm, June 2, 2010: 3, 8. Available at www.sipri.org/media/pressreleases/pressreleasetranslations/storypackage_milex.
2. Project on National Security Reform. “Forging a New Shield: Executive Summary.” Washington, DC: Author, November 2008: i. The PNSR website contains a wealth of comprehensive and detailed material: www.pnsr.org/.
3. Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan. “At What Cost? Contingency Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan Interim Report.” Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Washington, DC: Author, June 2009: 21.
4. The most egregious known incident to date took place on September 16, 2007, when private security contractors working for Blackwater USA were conducting an armed convoy through the Nisoor Square neighborhood of Baghdad. For reasons as yet unclear, the contractors stopped the convoy and began a shooting barrage that resulted in the deaths of seventeen and the wounding of twenty-four Iraqi civilians. In a Memorandum Opinion on December 31, 2009, U.S. District Judge Ricardo M. Urbina dismissed criminal charges against the former Blackwater security guards. For Judge Urbina’s ninety-page ruling, go to http://letterofapology.com/wp-content/ uploads/2009/12/blackwateropinion.pdf.
5. Commission on Army Acquisition and Program Management in Expeditionary Operations (the Gansler Commission). “Urgent Reform Required: Army Expeditionary Contracting.” Washington, DC: Author. October 31, 2007.