Regarding the transliteration of Japanese words and names, I have followed the Hepburn Romanization standard for transliterating Japanese words and use macrons for long vowels (that is, “ō” for denoting “ou” and “ū” for denoting “uu”). However, I have made exceptions when citing English-language sources that do not use macrons or spell out long vowels. Thus, when citing the Japanese press agency Kyōdō Tsūshin from a Japanese language source I use macrons, but when citing this press agency from an English source, such as the Japan Times, I follow the original rendering from that source (Kyōdō Tsushin, or more commonly just Kyōdō). I have generally written surname followed by given name for Japanese people, as per Japanese convention. However, I make an exception for Japanese (mostly scholars) who publish in English. Thus, I write Yasuhiro Izumikawa instead of Izumikawa Yasuhiro when discussing his works written under the former name. I also put the surname after the given name when citing Japanese books and articles in endnotes.