1. The honors include loving the motherland, serving the people, working hard, and obeying the law; the shames are their opposites.
2. Site visit, Chongxing, Beijing, August 26, 2010.
3. Site visit, Wenchang, Taipei, August 12, 2010.
4. As we will see, in some cases there are multiple forms of neighborhood organization, official and unofficial. In Japan, chōnaikai and jichikai are no longer mandated but have a near-universal presence nonetheless.
5. For instance, Dutton’s study of policing deals, in part, with neighborhood institutions (1992). Also see Yao’s study of the bao-jia in Taiwan (2002).
6. Multiple accounts discuss the Peruvian case (e.g., Stepan 1978, chap. 5; Castells 1983, chap. 19).
7. See the following pages of the Anchor Books edition of Wild Swans (Chang 1991): 69, 77, 114, 137, 173, 216, 265, and 306. Pagination is not the same in other editions.
8. There are certainly exceptions: sensitive and compelling accounts that do not conform to the typical pattern described here (e.g., Frolic 1980, 224–241; Dutton, Lo, and Wu 2008, chap. 3).
9. Sheryl WuDunn, “In China’s cities, the busybodies are organized,” New York Times, March 13, 1991, 4; Lisa Movius, “Mrs. Li is watching me: In China, SARS isn’t just threatening public health—it’s bringing back the Orwellian neighborhood committees of the Cultural Revolution,” June 19, 2003, http://www.salon .com/2003/06/19/sars_2/.
10. The well-known 1990 comedy sketch “Excess-Birth Guerrillas” (chaosheng youjidui), for instance, features a rural couple with three young children on the run from the small-footed tracking squads and birth control enforcement in the city. In the past, some of the women serving in RC’s indeed had been subject to the practice of foot binding in childhood, although that generation has long since disappeared from neighborhood service.