Terrorism, War, or Disease? Unraveling the Use of Biological Weapons

By Anne L. Clunan; Peter R. Lavoy et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER EIGHT
Imperial Japan’s Germ Warfare
The Suppression of Evidence at the Tokyo
War Crimes Trial, 1946–1948

JEANNE GUILLEMIN

During the twentieth century, most of the world’s major military powers— France, the Soviet Union, Imperial Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States—covertly attempted to develop biological weapons (BW).1 Among these now defunct national programs, that of Imperial Japan stands out as uniquely criminal, in two ways. First, its secret BW venture, based in occupied Manchuria and lasting from 1932 to 1945, relied extensively on inhumane medical experimentation, mainly involving captured Chinese men and also women and children. Second, Japanese military leaders actually conducted biological warfare against civilian populations. In the years 1940–43, Japan’s military attacked Chinese cities and towns with plague, cholera, typhoid, dysentery, anthrax, glanders, and other lethal diseases. By some reckonings, the Japanese program, including recurring plague epidemics, caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and casualties.2

Immediately after the war, key Japanese leaders responsible for the BW program ought to have been indicted for these war crimes at the 1946–48 International Military Tribunal of the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo war crimes trial. Instead, at this critical legal juncture, the United States withheld evidence concerning Japan’s BW program, and the other victor nations posed no objection. As this chapter describes, there was no shortage of incriminating facts. First-hand testimony and medical and laboratory documents about

-165-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Terrorism, War, or Disease? Unraveling the Use of Biological Weapons
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 351

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.