This book is the product of more than two decades of studying and analyzing problems in the field of space security. My interest in these issues began in the mid-1980s during the sharp U.S.-Soviet debates over the Soviet missile threat and the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative. I completed a doctoral dissertation on the subject in 1989, entitled Managing International Rivalry on High Technology Frontiers: U.S.-Soviet Competition and Cooperation in Space. For their help and guidance at the time, I again want to recognize my advisors at the University of California, Berkeley—Ernst B. Haas (formerly Robson research professor at Berkeley, now deceased), George W. Breslauer (now executive vice chancellor and provost at Berkeley), and John Holdren (currently White House science advisor and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy). I am also grateful to Dennis Ross (then at Berkeley and later the U.S. Middle East peace coordinator and a senior State Department advisor) for arranging an internship in Washington, D.C., in the summer of 1987 that first introduced me to the U.S. space community. Roald Sagdeev, then-director of the Space Research Institute in Moscow (now a distinguished professor of Physics at the University of Maryland), deserves great credit for facilitating a series of difficult-to-arrange interviews with officials across the Soviet space program in the spring of 1988. The Social Science Research Council and the Berkeley-Stanford Program on Soviet Studies provided grants in support of this earlier research, and dozens of U.S. and Soviet space analysts and officials kindly agreed to be interviewed for that project.
After this work, however, I largely set my interests in the space field aside in the midst of the changes in the Soviet Union and its eventual collapse. From July 1993 to June 2007, I worked in various positions at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies of the Monterey Institute of International Studies, where