"We Are Now the True Spaniards": Sovereignty, Revolution, Independence, and the Emergence of the Federal Republic of Mexico, 1808-1824

By Jaime E. Rodríguez O. | Go to book overview

Terms Used in the Text

Alcalde: a magistrate, holder of one of the chief offices of a city, villa, or town council. In pueblos sujetos (subject towns), the alcalde was the chief officer.

Alcalde mayor, or corregidor: the chief magistrate and governor of a district

Alférez real: royal standard bearer who was second in authority in the ayuntamiento

Asesor: legal advisor named to act in judicial matters for an official, such as the viceroy or intendant

Audiencia: a high court of appeals for civil and criminal cases that also functioned as the real acuerdo (advisory council) to the chief executive officer. Audiencia was also the name of the territory of that high court. New Spain had two audiencias, the Audiencia of Mexico and the Audiencia of Guadalajara

Ayuntamiento: the principal self-governing body of a city and its hinterland

Cabildo: there were two types, the cabildo eclesiástico (cathedral chapter) and the cabildo civil (town council)

Capitular: a member of an ayuntamiento

Casta: a Castilian word to designate groups of people or animals. By the eighteenth century, the poorer elements of society, usually mulatos, came to be known collectively as castas.

Ciudad: a city that possessed autonomous government and had jurisdiction over the urban areas as well as its hinterlands

Compromisarios: electors chosen at the parish level

Corregidor: a magistrate and governing official of a district or province called a corregimiento

Criollo: literally meaning “native of,” a term that was applied to persons, animals, and products of an area. In the eighteenth century the term was used to mean a person of Spanish ancestry born in America.

Cura: the pastor of a parish often called in English the parish priest

Derecho indiano: the laws of the Indies

Fiel ejecutor: city inspector of weights and measures in charge of the supply of foodstuffs and of establishing appropriate market prices

Fueros: special judicial privileges granted to regions in Spain that possessed their own code of laws or, in America, the special legal status of members of groups or corporations, such as the Indians, the Church, and the military

-xix-

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"We Are Now the True Spaniards": Sovereignty, Revolution, Independence, and the Emergence of the Federal Republic of Mexico, 1808-1824
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Table of Contents ix
  • Preface xiii
  • A Note about America and Americans xvii
  • Terms Used in the Text xix
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - A Shared Political Culture 7
  • Chapter 2 - The Collapse of the Spanish Monarchy 34
  • Chapter 3 - The Events of 1809 68
  • Chapter 4 - Two Revolutions 97
  • Chapter 5 - The Cádiz Revolution 149
  • Chapter 6 - A Fragmented Insurgency 195
  • Chapter 7 - Separation 235
  • Chapter 8 - The Mexican Empire 268
  • Chapter 9 - The Formation of the Federal Republic 305
  • Conclusion 335
  • Notes 347
  • Sources 445
  • Index 481
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