In this book, I use several different systems of romanization. Although I use the pinyin system for most Chinese personal and place names, I have consistently kept the spelling Canton (rather than Guangzhou), because this name is well known and firmly established. A few figures and place names, such as Chiang Kai-shek (rather than Jiang Jieshi), T. V. Soong (rather than Song Ziwen), and Hankow (Hankou) are treated the same way.
When names in Cantonese (or in another southern dialect) appeared in English documents but the Chinese characters cannot be determined, I have retained the original spelling.
|Chinese Units||U.S. Equivalent||Metric Equivalent|
|1 li||1821.15 feet||3.581 meters|
|1 mu||0.16 acres||0.064 hectares|
|1 qing||16.16 acres||6.539 hectares|
|1 liang (tale)||1.327 ounces||37.62 grams|
|1 jin||1.33 pounds||603.277 grams|
|1 dan (picul)||133.33 pounds||60.47 kilograms|
|1 shi||160 pounds||72.574 kilograms|
|1 sheng||1.87 pints||1.031 liters|
|1 dou||2.34 gallons||10.31 liters|
|SOURCE: Frederic Wakeman, Jr., Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985).|