This book uses the following symbols shown in Table 1 to transcribe examples and other linguistic data. The table illustrates the pronunciation of the letters of the Arabic alphabet in Modern Standard Arabic.
Table 1 Pronounciation of the letters of the Arabic alphabet in Modern
This study uses a broad kind of transcription. However, it should be noted that the data used in this book is mainly spoken data. Thus there is considerable variation within that data. For instance, the same word could be pronounced by the same speaker first with a long vowel and then with a short one in the same stretch of discourse. It is important for sociolinguists to capture the performance of speakers, rather than the idealised way in which words and phonemes are ‘supposed’ to be pronounced. Thus, the aim of transcribing the data is not to idealise but to render actual pronunciation.
Within the examples, a forward slash denotes a short pause, while two slashes denote a long pause.