The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present

By Antony Black | Go to book overview

The Delhi Sultanate and al-Barani:
Statecraft and Morality 17

The Islamic lands of northern and central India were ruled by an Afghan and Turkic military elite of slave soldiers under the Delhi sultanate (1206–1526); under sultan Balban (r.1249–87), high office was restricted to Turks. The regime bore the marks of its origins in Sunni Central Asia and adhered to Community-Traditional orthodoxy. Although Sultan Mubarak Shah declared himself Deputy (1317), other sultans found it judicious to enhance their status in the eyes of the‘ulama by being recognised and invested by the ‘Abbasid Caliph in Cairo.1 Under the Tughluq dynasty (1320–1413), and especially under Muhammad Ibn Tughluq (1325–51), the area of Islamic control was extended southwards.


MUSLIMS AND HINDUS

Islam was spread by Sufi missionaries and Persian merchants; the Sufi form of Islam proved attractive in India. It accommodated syncretism between Islamic and Hindu practices and beliefs; ‘Indian Islam seems to have been essentially a holy-man Islam’.2 Urdu was a lingua franca. Islam offered relief from the caste system, but conversion was not all that widespread.

Below the dominant elite, society was pluralist. The conquests somewhat resembled a corporate takeover, in that ‘the pre-Islamic political structure of India remained intact … local lords and the Brahmin religious elite retained local political power under Muslim suzerainty’, so long as taxes were paid (Lapidus 1988: 446). The traditional rural order remained under village headmen. Commerce and banking were dominated by upper-caste Hindus. Muhammad Ibn Tughluq appointed non-Muslims to high office and permitted Hindu temples to be built.

In political culture, syncretism was possible because both Muslims and Hindus agreed upon the abolute sovereignty of the divinely decreed sovereign. Moreover, ‘the Muslim emphasis upon loyalty to the ruler, patron-client relations, and the virtues of service and honour were consistent with Hindu political ideals’ (Lapidus 1988: 442). Sultans entered into a symbiotic relationship with Sufi leaders, to whom they looked for politico-religious support as their point of contact with the common people. The order deriving from Umar al-Suhrawardi (see above, p. 137) ‘[mediated] between the Delhi sultanate and

-164-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 380

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.