1. North Star, June 2, 1848.
4. Victor Ullman, Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971. Robert Khan, “The Political Ideology of Martin Delany” Journal of Black Studies, June 1984. Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual. New York: William Morrow, 1967. Vincent Harding, There Is A River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America. New York: Vintage Books, 1983; see also his The Other American Revolution. Los Angeles: Center for AfroAmerican Studies, University of California at Los Angeles, 1980. Sterling Stuckey, The Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972.
5. August Meier and Elliot Rudwick, Black History and the Historical Profession, 1915–1980. Urbana: The University of Illinois Press, 1986, chs. 2, 3. John H. Franklin, “On the Evolution of Scholarship in Afro-American History” in Darlene Clark Hine ed., The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986, 13–24 William H. Harris, “Trends and Needs in Afro-American Historiography” Ibid., 139–156 Robert L. Harris, “Coming of Age: The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography” Journal of Negro History 66, no. 2, summer 1962. Earl Thorpe, Mind of the Negro: An Intellectual History of Afro-America. New York: Negro University Press, 1970. Harold Cruse, “Black Studies: Interpretation, Methodology and the Relationship to Social Movements” Afro-American Studies 2, 1971, 15–51 Sterling Stuckey, “Twilight of Our Past: Reflections on the Origins of Black History” in John A. Williams and Charles F. Harris, eds., Amistad 2: Writings on Black History and Culture. New York: Vintage books, 1971. Vincent Harding, “Beyond Chaos: Black History and the Search for the New Land,” in John A. Williams and Charles F. Harris, eds., Amistad 1: Writings on Black History and Culture. New York: Vintage Books, 1970.
6. To be a conservative, such as Martin Delany was, in the context of Radical Reconstruction was to stand in opposition to the ideas and programs of the Radical Republican administration, especially in relation to the political enfranchisement of blacks and the accompanying social implications. I refer to Delany as a conservative precisely because of his vocal and harsh opposition to Radical Reconstruction. He never disguised his dislike for, and disagreement with, what he perceived and characterized as the irrational, radical, provocative,