The Road to the Throne: How Liu Bang Founded China's Han Dynasty

By Hung Hing Ming | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 1: THE BACKGROUND

1. THE PERIOD OF WARRING STATES (403 BC–221 BC)

During the period of Warring States, over two thousand years ago, China consisted of seven states. They were the State of Qi (now the most part of Shandong Province), the State of Chu (now the areas of Jiangsu Province, Anhui Province, Hubei Province and Hunan Province), the State of Zhao (now the southern part of Hebei Province and northern part of Shanxi Province), the State of Yan (now the northern part of Hebei Province and the west part of Liaoning Province), the State of Wei (now the northern part of Henan Province and southern part of Shanxi Province), the State of Haan (now northwest part of Henan Province and the southern part of Shanxi Province) and the State of Qin (now Shaanxi Province and Sichuan Province and the east part of Gansu Province).

The seven states waged wars against one another. The State of Qin had the topographical advantage. It was composed of two parts: the area of Guanzhong in the north and the area of Ba and Shu in the south. “Guanzhong” means the area within the mountain passes, and indeed Guanzhong was surrounded by high mountains, broken by four passes. Hanguguan Pass was in the east, Wuguan Pass in the south, Xiaoguan Pass in the north and Sanguan Pass in the west. To the east, the area of Guanzhong was protected by the Yellow River as well as the mountains.

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