Istanbul under Allied Occupation, 1918-1923

By Nur Bilge Criss | Go to book overview

CHAPTER EIGHT
TOWARDS EVACUATION

Between 1921 and 1923, Ankara gradually imposed its will both on İstanbul and on Europe. The Turkish peace had to be concluded in an entirely different manner from the way it was first envisioned by the Allies. Differences of opinion among the Allies only helped the Nationalists to accomplish the feat.

A convention between the Nationalists and the British for exchanging prisoners had been signed in London on March 16, 1921. Accordingly, by October 30th, all the prisoners of Malta had been released and most of them had gone to Ankara to enter public service. Following the Sakarya victory against the Greeks (August 22 — September 5, 1921), there was a waiting period of one year before the Nationalists undertook the final offensive.

The first western European country that recognized the Ankara government was France. On October 20, 1921, the French-Turkish accord was signed. Recognition was followed by a congratulatory message to Mustafa Kemal from the French veterans of the Gallipoli campaign on the occasion of the Sakarya victory. Former adversaries declared that they had never been enemies.

Le malheur qui précipita dans la guerre nos deux grands pays, amis
éprouvés dans l’Histoire, fut si grand, que la fatalité nous mit des deux
côtés de la barricade. Ainsi fut fait… Mais, même sur le champ de ba-
taille, les coeurs turcs et français ne cesserent de s’estimer: nous fûmes des
adversaires, jamais des ennemis. Nous rendons hommage à votre bra-
voure, à votre loyauté, dont peuvent témoigner les blessés de nos fronts
communs. Aujourd’hui que vous défendez, avec un héroisme inlassable,
le sol sacré de votre Patrie menacé par l’inapplicable traité de Sèvres, la
plus belle marque d’estime et de vieille affection que peut vous donner,
dans son ensemble, le peuple de France, ce sont “les anciens Combat-
tants des Dardanelles” qui vous le portent. Réunis en assemblée générale,
notre association a invite, à l’unanimite, son Comité à vous addresser ce
salut spontané, écho de notre amitié séculaire. Nous souhaitons que les
magnifiques efforts de l’armée nationaliste turque dirigés et soutenus par
un chef tel que vous, reçoivent leur recompense. Nous souhaitons que
soit maintenu, comme seule base d’une paix juste, l’accord conclu avec
M. Franklin-Bouillon. Recevez nos voeux d’un même coeur afin que nos
pays, par leurs gouvemements, interprètes de nos populations, se tendent

-140-

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Istanbul under Allied Occupation, 1918-1923
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Ottoman Empire - Politics, Society and Economy ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Table of Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Acknowledgements xv
  • Chapter One - Introduction 1
  • Chapter Two - A Survey of İstanbul during the Armistice 20
  • Chapter Three - The Domestic Political Situation 40
  • Chapter Four - The Allied Administration 60
  • Chapter Five - An Allied Dilemma 81
  • Chapter Six - Resistance and Underground 94
  • Chapter Seven - Resistance and Underground 115
  • Chapter Eight - Towards Evacuation 140
  • Conclusions 156
  • Epilogue 161
  • Bibliography 162
  • Index 177
  • Illustrations 179
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