The Muslims of Medieval Italy

By Alex Metcalfe | Go to book overview

9
The Muslim massacres of the 1160s

Sicilian domestic and external affairs

By 1158, the kingdom had treaties and truces in place with Venice, Genoa, the papacy and the Byzantines. The following year, the double papal election of Alexander III (1159–81) and Victor IV (1159–64) forged closer ties between Alexander and Palermo, not least because Victor, although less widely favoured as a candidate, had the support of the German emperor. The threat to Sicily from beyond the Alps was undiminished, but the treaty agreed with Genoa reduced the potential for future Genoese alliances with the Germans, who lacked naval power in the Mediterranean. At the same time, the treaty gave advantages to north Italian merchants in Sicilian ports by strengthening their longer-term hold over trade routes in the south Mediterranean. The arrangement provided short-term economic benefits to the crown through the commerce it generated, much of which involved the sale of goods and foodstuffs produced on royal lands.

By 1160, the Sicilian colonies in Ifrīqiya had shaken off control from Palermo. The blame for this Muslim revolt in the kingdom’s new colonies had been pinned squarely on the royal eunuch admirals and the crypto-Muslims Philip and Peter, and on the king’s amīr of amīrs, Maio of Bari, for their alleged lenience, incompetence and for their reluctance to become embroiled in retaking the Muslim colonies. Arguably, the material, strategic and political loss of Ifrīqiya to the kingdom were not the only issues at stake. The violent re-establishment of Muslim control over Ifrīqiya had inflicted a humiliating, psychological blow on the Sicilian Christians.1 Incalculable as this was, it helps to explain why political discontent in the kingdom was, after the loss of Ifrīqiya, more likely than before to manifest itself in religiously inspired violence between different faith communities, particularly as the king’s powerful Palermitan state officials had now become the lightning rods for discontent in the eyes of the kingdom’s Latin nobility. When viewed as such, the points in the political matrix that brought the forces of disaffection into conflict with William I and his influential bureaucrats become clearer and help to explain why the turbulent events of 1160–2 translated into massacres of the island’s Muslims, whose political and defensive weakness was exposed and exploited when urban

-181-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Muslims of Medieval Italy
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 314

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.