Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

By Zoë Burkholder | Go to book overview

NOTES

Introduction

1. Alice B. Nirenberg, “Meet Your Relatives,” Common Ground 2, no. 4 (1944): 17–23, quotes page 17. This play is also mentioned in Violet Edwards, “Note on the ‘The Races of Mankind,’” in Ruth Benedict, Race: Science and Politics (New York: Viking, 1945): 168, suggesting that Benedict was familiar with the script. A revised version of the play Meet Your Relatives was published by the Public Affairs Committee, Inc., in New York City, see: “‘Race of Mankind’(Versions of)” in folder, Minorities—General—Publications, Box 50, Philleo Nash Papers, Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri. Thanks to Tom Guglielmo for sharing this last source.

2. Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish, The Races of Mankind. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 85 (New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1943): 5.

3. Marjorie B. Smiley et al., “Intercultural Education in English Classrooms: An Informal Survey,” English Journal 35, no. 6 (1946): 337–49, quote page 341.

4. Jewel Bell, “My Experiences in Promoting Better Understanding,” American Unity 5, no. 6 (1947): 21.

5. A complete list of teaching journals analyzed in this project are listed in the bibliography. African American teachers belonged to separate teaching associations including the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools founded in 1907, which became the American Teachers Association in 1937, as well as state teaching associations in the South. On African American teaching associations, see: Carol F. Karpinski, A Visible Company of Professionals: African Americans and the National Education Association during the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Peter Lang, 2008); Adam Fairclough, A Class of Their Own: Black Teachers in the Segregated South (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007); Thelma D. Perry, History of the American Teachers Association (Washington, DC: National Education Association, 1975).

6. Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2010); Peggy Pascoe, What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009); Victoria Hattam, In the Shadow of Race: Jews, Latinos, and Immigrant Politics in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007); Bruce Baum, The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity (New York: New York University Press, 2006); Vernon J. Williams Jr., The Social Sciences and Theories of Race (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006); Thomas A. Guglielmo, White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); Gary Gerstle, American Crucible: Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001); Audrey Smedley,

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