1. Shabazz, Advancing Democracy, 10.
2. J. Douglas Smith discusses “managed race relations and the role of black and white elites” in Managing White Supremacy.
3. For “fair play” segregationists, see Newberry, “Without Urgency or Ardor.”
4. For discussion of racial orders, see King and Smith, “Racial Orders.” See also Omi and Winant, Racial Formation.
5. On democratization in the United States, see Gonzalez and King, “The State and Democratization.”
6. See Lemann, Redemption.
7. On modernization and white supremacy, see Cell, The Highest Stage; Reed, “Looking Back.”
8. Skocpol’s definition is given in Protecting Soldiers and Mothers, 57–59. See also P. Pierson, Politics in Time, for further discussion of policy feedback.
9. On the NAACP in the South during the 1920s, see Autrey, “‘Can These Bones Live?’”; Reich, “Soldiers of Democracy.” On Garveyism in the South, see Rolinson, Grassroots Garveyism.
10. See Hale, Making Whiteness.
11. On other interpretations of the post–World War II South, see Mickey, “Paths out of Dixie”; Brooks, Defining the Peace.
12. See, for example, J. J. Kilpatrick, The Sovereign States.
13. As is well known, Washington’s seeming acquiescence masked an active, though secret, financial support of litigation and other actions that would weaken