UNCLE TOM’S CABIN HAS always stirred debate. When the novel came out in 1852, it enraged white Southerners, who called it libelous and Stowe a liar. In the Southern Literary Messenger, George F. Holmes accused her of vilifying Southern whites and planting “seeds of strife and violence” (Holmes  631), a charge he escalated the next year when he reviewed A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1853), the book Stowe published to defend her novel. Holmes exclaimed: “The woman’s rights Conventions, which have rendered the late years infamous, have unsexed in great measure the female mind, and shattered the temple of feminine delicacy and moral graces; and the result is before us in these dirty insinuations of Mrs. Stowe.” Most outrageous in Holmes’s view—and he was not alone—was a Yankee woman’s presuming to tell men what to think. He blazoned across the page these words from the New Testament: “Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence “(Holmes  322–23). No less incensed, William Gilmore Simms wrote of A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the Southern Quarterly Review: “Mrs. Stowe betrays a malignity so remarkable that the petticoat lifts of itself, and we see the hoof of the beast under the table” (Simms 226).