TITLE IX: OLD NORMS IN NEW FORMS
Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state
and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the
great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition
of the importance of education to our democratic society… It is the
very foundation of good citizenship… it is doubtful that any child
may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the
opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state
has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made
available to all on equal terms.
—Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
Prejudice against women is the last socially accepted bigotry.
—Senator George McGovern, 19711
By the time she was five years old, Donna Lopiano wanted to pitch for the New York Yankees. Far from an idle dream, Lopiano recalled growing up in Stamford, Connecticut, “on a street with 15 boys and