SEX-SEGREGATED SPORTS ON TRIAL
Athletic competition builds character in boys. We don’t need that
kind of character in our girls, the women of tomorrow.
—Hollander v. Connecticut Interscholastic
Athletic Conference (1971)1
Scarcely any political question arises in the United States which is
not resolved, sooner or later, into a judicial one.
—Alexis de Tocqueville2
The scene on August 18, 1920, was a dramatic one. For over 70 years, suffrage reformers had been trying to win for women the right to vote. Finally, on June 4, 1919, both Houses of Congress passed with a two-thirds majority the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting states from disqualifying women from the franchise solely because of their sex. The notion of women voting, however, was still so controversial that getting the required thirty-six states to ratify the amendment was by no means a foregone conclusion. All southern states had voted no, but thirty-five