1. Quoted in Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-century America (New York: Norton, 2005), 114. Katznelson himself cites Theda Skocpol, “The G.I. Bill and U.S. Social Policy, Past and Future,” Social Philosophy and Policy 14 (Summer 1997): 95–96.
2. Tom Brokaw, The Greatest Generation (New York: Random House, 1998).
3. Bob Michel, telephone interview by Glenn C. Altschuler, July 10, 2008.
4. Peter F. Drucker, Post-capitalist Society (New York: HarperBusiness, 1993), 3. Cited in Michael J. Bennett, When Dreams Came True: The GI Bill and the Making of Modern America (Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1996), 7.
5. Charles Lane, “Head of the Class,” Stanford Magazine (July/August 2005); National Public Radio, “Weekend Edition,” Sept. 24, 2005.
6. Edward Humes, Over Here: How the G.I. Bill Transformed the American Dream (Orlando: Harcourt, 2006).
7. Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Knopf, 2003); Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White. See also David Onkst, “Black World War II Veterans and the G.I. Bill in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, 1944–1947,” (MA thesis, University of Georgia, 1990).
8. Suzanne Mettler, Soldiers to Citizens: The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greatest Generation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005). See also Kathleen Frydl, “The G.I. Bill” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2000).
9. John Higham, “Is This Education? Subsidy, or Sympathy?” American Scholar Forum (July 1947).
10. Harold M. Hyman, American Singularity: The 1787 Northwest Ordinance, the 1862 Homestead and Morrill Acts, and the 1944 GI Bill (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986), 65.
11. Cited in Bennett, When Dreams Came True, 121.
12. President’s Commission on Veterans’ Pensions, Readjustment Benefits: General Survey and Appraisal, Staff Report No. IX, Part A (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956), 50. A note to this tabulation suggests that the “sample data slightly understate the extent of participation in each program.” Other data