1. I have explored some of these trends elsewhere; see Philip Stern, “History and Historiography of the English East India Company: Past, Present, and Future!” History Compass 7, no. 4 (2009): 1146–80.
2. Samuel Purchas, Purchas His Pilgrimes, In Five Bookes (London: William Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone, 1625), 1:630.
3. James Mill, The History of British India, 2nd ed. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1820), 1: iii.
1. Thomas Babington Macaulay, “Government of India (10 July 1833),” in Speeches of Lord Macaulay, Corrected By Himself (London: Longman, Green, and Company, 1877), 65–66.
2. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (London, 1776), 2:4, 479.
3. Edmund Burke, The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, vol. 7: Speeches on the Impeachment of Warren Hastings (London: Bell and Daldy, 1870), 23.
4. An exception is Robert Travers, Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth-Century India: The British In Bengal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
5. Such sentiments are omnipresent in the literature, even among the Company’s most accomplished and prolific historians. For a sampling, see C. A. Bayly, “The British MilitaryFiscal State and Indigenous Resistance: India 1750–1820,” in Lawrence Stone, ed., An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), 325–26; H. V. Bowen, “‘No Longer Mere Traders’: Continuities and Change in the Metropolitan Development of the East India Company, 1600–1834,” in H. V. Bowen, Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby, eds., The Worlds of the East India Company (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2002), 19; K. N. Chaudhuri, The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660–1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), 20, 113; Bruce Lenman, England’s Colonial Wars: 1550–1688: Conflicts, Empire, and National Identity (Harlow, Essex, 2001), 207; Sudipta Sen, Empire of Free Trade: The East India Company and the Making of the Colonial Marketplace (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998), 80; S. Sen, Distant Sovereignty: National Imperialism and the Origins of British India (New York: Routledge, 2002), 6; Niels Steensgaard, The Asian Trade Revolution of the Seventeenth Century: The East India Companies and the Decline of the Caravan Trade (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), 114.