1. Rogan Kersh, Dreams of a More Perfect Union (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001), 32–68.
2. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 [hereafter, JCC], ed. Worthington C. Ford et al., 34 vols. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1904–1937), http:// memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwjc.html, September 25, 1783, 618. The Committee consisted of James Duane, John Rutledge, Thomas Fitzsimons, Elbridge Gerry, and Stephen Higginson. Rutledge, Fitzsimons, and Gerry were delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
3. George Washington, “Circular to the States,” June 8, 1783, in The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1938), 26, 483–96.
4. David Brian Robertson, “Constituting a National Interest: Madison Against the States’ Autonomy,” in James Madison: The Theory and Practice of Republican Government, ed. Samuel Kernell (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003), 184–216. In The Federalist Number 51, Madison aspires to a government that serves the national interest, a national government with “a will independent of the society itself.” In an extended republic, “a coalition of a majority of the whole society could seldom take place on any other principles than those of justice and the general good.” Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist, ed. Jacob E. Cooke (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1961), 352–53. Originally titled The Federalist when first published in 1788, the collection of essays often has appeared under the title The Federalist Papers over the past century.
5. Madison to James Monroe, August 7, 1785, inThe Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson et al., 17 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press and Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1962–1991) [hereafter, PJM], ed. William T. Hutchinson et al., 17 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press and Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1962–1991), 8, 333–36, and “Vices of the Political System of the United States,” PJM 9, 348–50; Lance Banning, The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995), 54–55, 72.
6. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 [hereafter, RFC], ed. Max Farrand, 4 vols. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1937), RFC May 31, I, 53. Decades later, Madison remembered that public opinion was rapidly growing supportive of a national government with stronger powers; James Madison, “Preface to Debates in the Convention of 1787,” in RFC III, 545. On growing support for a stronger national government, see David Brian Robertson, The Constitution and America’s Destiny (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 65–73.