Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds behind Them

By Clifford A. Pickover | Go to book overview

CURIE’S MAGNETISM LAW AND THE
CURIE-WEISS LAW

France, 1895, generalized in 1907. The magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic materials is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature. A critical temperature (the Curie temperature) exists, above which the magnetic properties disappear.

In 1895, the Armenians were massacred in Turkey. H. G. Wells
published The Time Machine. Italian-Irish electrical engineer
Guglielmo Marconi invented “radio telegraphy.” German physi-
cist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays. American businessman
King Camp Gillette invented a safety razor with a disposable
blade, along with the business model that eventually made him
famous. Baseball superstar Babe Ruth and U.S. boxing cham-
pion Jack Dempsey were born. W. E. B. Du Bois became the first
African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University.
Irish physicist George Fitzgerald suggested that distance con-
tracts in the direction a body is traveling.


CURIE’S MAGNETISM LAW

French physical chemist Pierre Curie discovered the following law by fitting experimental results to a simple model. In particular, Curie’s Law illuminates the relationship between the magnetization of certain kinds of materials and the applied magnetic field and temperature:

Here, M is the resulting magnetization, and Bext is the magnetic flux density of the applied (external) field, measured in teslas. T is the absolute temperature measured in degrees kelvin, and C is the Curie point, a constant that depends on the material. According to Curie’s Law, if one increases the magnetic field, one tends to increase the magnetization of a material in that field. As one increases the temperature while holding the magnetic field constant, the magnetization decreases. Sometimes, Curie’s Law is written as

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